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Series of papers combined to form a doctoral thesis for the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
|Series||Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae -- 41|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||various pagings :|
Download Studies of the evolution of the haemagglutinin protein of equine influenza virus H3N8
Canine Influenza A virus subtype H3N8 (H3N8 CIV) was recognized in as a novel respiratory pathogen for dogs. To date, infections have been diagnosed in thousands of dogs in 38 U.S. states. Introduction. Although serological evidence suggests H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) has been circulating in U.S.
dogs since as early as , it was not until that the virus was isolated from Florida racing greyhounds exhibiting signs of infectious respiratory disease .Early phylogenetic analyses showed CIV, an influenza A virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae, to be closely Cited by: 6.
Request PDF | Equine Influenza Virus | Equine influenza (EI), commonly known as ‘horse flu,’ is a major respiratory disease of equines caused by equine influenza.
C.C. Yap, B. Winckler, in Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Mapping of Dendritic and Axonal Targeting Signals. On the basis of the observation that influenza hemagglutinin, which is apical in MDCK cells, targets to axons in neurons, while vesicular stomatitis virus G-protein, which is basolateral in MDCK cells, targets to the somatodendritic domain of neurons, it has been proposed that the.
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) inand is associated with the outbreak known as the Spanish flu. It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc.
depending on the type of H or N antigens Class: Insthoviricetes. Equine influenza viruses (EIV) are a major cause of acute respiratory disease in horses worldwide and occasionally also affect vaccinated animals. Like other influenza A viruses, they undergo antigenic drift, highlighting the importance of both surveillance and virus characterisation in order for vaccine strains to be kept up to date.
The aim of the work reported here was to monitor the Cited by: Structural changes in the haemagglutinin which accompany egg adaptation of an influenza A(H1N1) virus. Robertson JS, Bootman JS, Newman R, Oxford JS, Daniels RS, Webster RG, Schild GC.
Antigenic changes are often induced in the haemagglutinin (HA) of human isolates of influenza A(H1N1) and B viruses during their isolation and propagation in Cited by: The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the haemagglutinin genes coding for the HA 1 domain of H3N8 equine influenza viruses isolated over wide regions of the world were analyzed in detail to determine their evolutionary relationships.
We have constructed a phylogenetic model tree by the neighbour-joining method using nucleotide sequences of 15 haemagglutinin genes, Cited by: With the widespread use of a recently developed canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 vaccine, continual molecular evaluation of circulating CIVs is necessary for monitoring antigenic drift.
The aim of this project was to further describe the genetic evolution of CIV, as well as determine any genetic variation within potential antigenic regions that might result in antigenic by: 6.
Differences in sensitivity in haemagglutinin inhibition assays be- tween A/equine/H3N8 viruses isolated in eggs and MDCK cells are linked to cleavage of the hae- magglutinin molecule.
Vet. Microbiol., Two primary isolates of A/equine/H3N8 viruses were obtained in embryonated hens' eggs and in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) by: 4.
Since the emergence of the Eurasian-lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) inthere has been continued spread and evolution of the by: 1. Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease that, in humans, is caused by influenza A and influenza B viruses.
Typically characterized by annual. Binds to sialic acid-containing receptors on the cell surface, bringing about the attachment of the virus particle to the cell.
This attachment induces virion internalization either through clathrin-dependent endocytosis or through clathrin- and caveolin-independent pathway. Plays a major role in the determination of host range restriction and virulence.
Binds to sialic acid-containing receptors on the cell surface, bringing about the attachment of the virus particle to the cell. This attachment induces virion internalization of about two third of the virus particles through clathrin-dependent endocytosis and about one third through a clathrin- and caveolin-independent pathway.
Plays a major role in the determination of host range restriction. Influenza A viruses are important veterinary and human health pathogens that all share many genetic characteristics. Wild birds are thought to be the primordial reservoirs of influenza viruses.
The viruses, when given the opportunity to infect new species, can adapt to the new host and can cause disease that ranges from mild to by: with the viral influenza virus Hemagglutinin (HA) protein is translated in cells as a single protein, HA0, or hemagglutinin precursor protein.
For viral activation, hemagglutinin precursor protein (HA0) must be cleaved by a trypsin-like serine endoprotease at a specific site, normally.
All subtype H7 viruses isolated from birds before have Gln In contrast, many chicken isolates and the majority of the human H7N9 isolates detected since have Leu, including the A/Shanghai/2/ virus. Influenza A Leu viruses bind to a reduced subset of α2,3-linked sialylglycans, as compared to their Gln counterparts.
An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) was reported in Algeria between May and July, The outbreak started in Tiaret, in west province of Algeria, and spread to the other parts of the country affecting almost horses in many provinces.
The population studied was composed of horses from different groups of age. Clinical sign expression was age by: : Influenza A Haemagglutinin H1 Antibody (lnA88): Industrial & Scientific.
Skip to main content. Try Prime EN Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Orders Try Prime Cart. Industrial & Scientific. Go Search 12 Days of Deals Best Sellers Find. Origin of the Pandemic Influenza Virus. The – influenza pandemic was caused by an influenza A virus of the H1N1 subtype.
Sequence analysis suggests that the ultimate ancestral source of this virus is almost certainly avian [10, 11].This is not an unexpected finding: the enteric tracts of waterfowl such as ducks and geese serve as reservoirs for all known influenza A Cited by: Influenza A haemagglutinin, antibody Cat.# 3IH4 This data sheet is provided for information only.
After adding the product to the cart by clicking the button below you will see if there is. Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable.
We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to. Orthomyxoviridae (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus") is a family of RNA includes seven genera: Alphainfluenzavirus, Betainfluenzavirus, Deltainfluenzavirus, Gammainfluenzavirus, Isavirus, Thogotovirus, and first four genera contain viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates, including birds (see also avian influenza Class: Insthoviricetes.
Among influenza viruses, type A viruses cause the vast majority of severe disease in humans, including pandemics. They also infect the widest range of host species and exhibit the greatest genetic diversity .The genetic diversity of influenza viruses is caused by the error-prone RNA polymerase during genome replication [2, 3].The error-prone replication and short generation times Cited by: 2.
-HA is cleaved by a protease and the virus is internalized into the cell-The endosome containing the virus acidifies, which activates the cleaved HA-Now that the endosome is acidified, H+ ions pass through M2 pores to the core -> viral RNA dissociates from nucleocapsid-Viral proteins and more copies of the genome are made.
subtype influenza viruses suggest avian-like receptor speci-ficity. However, we identified 2 amino acids in avian and human H10, T and S, that are common in circulating human influenza viruses and were associated with changes in receptor binding in other avian influenza A virus subtypes (6,7).
Influenza virus contains two highly variable envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA).
Here we show that, while HA evolution is much more complex than NA evolution, it still shows abrupt punctuation changes linked to punctuation changes of NA. HA exhibits proteinquakes, which resemble earthquakes and are related to hydropathic shifting of sialic acid binding by: 1.
Abstract. Duringa subclade highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late /earlythe virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages.
The Influenza A virus is an orthomyxovirus, and its receptor binding complex is comprised of two primary structural proteins, Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). It has been determined that Hemagglutinin is the primary protein responsible for binding to receptor sites on the cell membrane, allowing the virion to enter the cell (Subbarao.
When a virus infects an E. coli cell, what part of the virus enters the bacterial cytoplasm. only the nucleic acid The phage reproductive cycle that kills the bacterial host cell is a _____ cycle, and a phage that always reproduces this way is a _____ phage.
Avian influenza (AI) is a major respiratory disease of poultry that has the potential to cause catastrophic losses to the commercial poultry industry worldwide.
The overall objective of this application is to investigate the role of the hemagglutinin of moderately pathogenic (H5N3) and non-pathogenic (H5N2) AI virus on pathogenesis in chickens.
histopathology, virus replication in lung and trachea, viral intra-host evolution, as well as the host neutralizing antibody response indicated the impact of HAD/G polymorphism in combina-tion with host factors on influenza virus adaption.
Materials and Methods Ethics statement All trial procedures and animal care activities were conducted in. Since its emergence in Marchthe pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus has posed a serious threat to public health.
To trace the evolutionary path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different by: In mid-Aprilthe emergence of a novel influenza A virus was first noticed in Mexico .The virus is a quadruple reassortant, in which the RNA genome is originated from swine, avian, and human influenza viruses [2, 3].The virus capable of infecting humans, at the time of its emergence, was antigenically new to the world’s population and subsequently spread and caused uncontained Cited by: 4.
Recall that the surface of the influenza virion is covered with spikes of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Hemagglutinin is a protein that binds tightly to the sugar portions of various cell-surface glycoproteins by recognizing and binding the sugar sialic acid, which is also called N-acetyl neuraminic acid.
Sialic acid is found at the terminus. The AI virus subtype H5N1 eluted rapidly with higher temperature and maximum elution was observed within 8 hours.
The maximum HI titres were obtained using 4 HA units of AI virus antigen compared to 1 or 8 HA units. Key Words: Avian influenza virus (AIV) H 5N1, hemagglutination, poultry I˝TRODUCTIO˝ Avian influenza is caused by anFile Size: KB. Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin (HA) Hemagglutinin was originally named because of the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes by attaching to specific sialic glycoprotein receptors.
As shown with molecular image on the right, HA is a homotrimer composed of three identical subunits. As shown in Figureeach HA subunit consists of two disulfide-linked polypeptides that are.
The influenza B virus BM2 protein may be involved in the ribonucleoprotein complexes through the binding with membrane protein M1 (T.
Odagiri, H. Kariwa, Y. Ohara). Identification of the functional domains of the matrix protein of influenza A/WSN/33 virus (Z. Ye et al.).Format: Hardcover.
The herb formulation Deva-5 is used in traditional medicine to treat acute infectious diseases. Deva-5 is composed of five herbs: Gentiana decumbens L., Momordica cochinchinensis L., Hypecoum erectum L., Polygonum bistorta L., and Terminalia chebula Retz.
Deva-5 and its five components were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against avian influenza A virus subtype by: Protein Structure: A DNA sequence encoding an N-terminal segment (Met 1-Arg ) of Influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin (A/California/04/ (H1N1)) (ACP), termed as HA1, was fused with a C-terminal polyhistidine tag.
with the viral influenza virus Hemagglutinin (HA) protein is translated in cells as a single protein, HA0, or hemagglutinin precursor protein. For viral activation, hemagglutinin precursor protein (HA0) must be cleaved by atrypsin-like serine endoprotease at specific site, normally.Antigenic variation of equine influenza virus Introduction Equine influenza is one of the most im portant contagious respiratory diseases of horses.
A/equinelPlague/56 (H 7 N 7) was the first influenza virus isolated from a horse in Czechoslovakia in ). Ina virus of different subtype, A/equineIMiami/ 1 /63 (H 3Cited by: Protein Structure: A DNA sequence encoding the Influenza A virus (A/duck/Hong Kong//(H10N3)) hemagglutinin (BAF) (Met1-Ile) termed as HA, was expressed with a polyhistidine tag at the C-terminus.